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Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga 
Commentary by Sri Adi Sankaracharya, Translated by Swami Gambhirananda

In the seventh chapter, as also in the ninth, have been revealed the reality [Reality both immanent and transcendent.] and the glories [Glory: the aids to the realization of the qualified and the unqualified aspects of God.] of the Lord. Thereafter, now have to be presented those manifestations through which the Lord is to be meditated on. And the reality of the Lord also, though spoken of earlier, has to be repeated because of its inscrutability. Hence-

The Blessed Lord said:

1. O mighty-armed one, listen over again ot My supreme utterance, which I, wishing your welfare, shall speak to you who take delight (in it).

O mighty-armed one, srnu, listen; bhuyah eva, over agiain; me, to My; paramam, supreme; vacah, utterance, which is expressive of the transcendental Reality; yat, which supreme Truth; aham, I; vaksyami, shall speak; te, to you; priyamanaya, who take delight (in it). You become greatly pleased by My utterance, like one drinking ambrosia. Hence, I shall speak to you hita-kamyaya, wishing your welfare.

'Why shall I speak?' In answer to this the Lord says:

2. Neither the gods nor the great sages know My majesty. For, in all respects, I am the source of the gods and the great sages.

Na sura-sanah, neither the gods-Brahma and others; viduh, know;-what do they not know?-me, My; prabhavam (prabhavam), majesty, abundance of lordly power-or, derived in the sense of 'coming into being', it means origin. Nor even the maharsayah, great sages, Bhrgu and others [Bhrgu, Marici, Atri, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu and Vasistha.-Tr.] devanam, of the gods; ca, and; maharsinam, of the great sages.

Besides,

3. He who knows Me-the birthless, the beginningless, and the great Lord of the worlds, he, the undeluded one among mortals, becomes freed from all sins.

Yah, he who; vetti, knows; mam, Me; ajam, the birthless; and anadim, the beginningless: Since I am the source of the gods and the great sages, and nothing else exists as My origin, therefore I am birthless and beginningless. Being without an origin is the cause of being birthless. He who knows Me who am thus birthless and beginningless, and loka-maheswaram, the great Lord of the worlds, the transcendental One devoid of ignorance and its effects; sah, he; the asammudhah, undeluded one; martyesu, among mortals, among human beings; pramucyate, becomes freed; sarva-papaih, from all sins-committed knowingly or unknowingly.

'For the following reason also I am the great Lord of the worlds:'

4. Intelligence, wisdom, non-delusion, forgiveness, truth, control of the external organs, control of the internal organs, happiness, sorrow, birth, death and fear as also fearlessness;

5. Non-injury, equanimity, satisfaction, austerity, charity, fame, infamy-(these) different dispositions of beings spring from Me alone.

Buddhih, intelligence-the power of the internal organ to know of things which are subtle etc. Indeed, people talk of a man possessed of this (power) as intelligent. Jnanam, wisdom-knowledge of entities such as the Self etc. Asammohah, non-delusion-proceeding with discrimination with regard to things that are to be known as they present them-selves. Ksama, forgiveness-unperturbability of the mind of one who is abused or assulted. Satyam, truth-an utterance regarding what one has seen, heard, and felt oneself, communicated as such to others for their understanding, is said to be truth. Damah, control of the external organs. Samah, control of the internal organs. Sukham, happiness. Duhkham, sorrow. Bhavah, birth; and its opposite abhavah, death. And bhayam, fear; as also its opposite abhayam, fearlessness. Ahimsa, non-injury-non-cruely towards creatures. Samata, equanimity. Tustih, satisfaction-the idea of sufficiency with regard to things acquired. Tapah, austerity-disciplining the body through control of the organs. Danam, charity-distribution (of wealth) according to one's capacity. Yasah, fame-renown arising from righteousness. On the contrary, ayasah is infamy due to unrighteousness. (These) prthak-vidhah, different; bhavah, dispositions-intelligence etc. as described; bhuanam, of beings, of living bengs. bhavanti, spring; mattah, eva, from Me alone, [This is said in the sesne that none of these dispositions can exist without the Self.] from God, in accordanced with their actions.

Moreover,

6. The seven great sages as also the four Manus of anceint days, of whom are these creatures in the world, had their thoughts fixed on Me, and they were born from My mind.

Sapta, the seven; maharsayah, great sages-Bhrgu and others; tatha, as also; catvarah, the four; manavah, Manus [Savarni, Dharma-savarini, Daksa-savarni, and Savarna.-Tr.]- well known as Savarnas; purve, of ancient days; yesam, of whom, of which Manus and the great sages; imah, these; prajah, creatures, moving and non-moving; loke in the world, are the creation; madbhavah, had their thoughts fixed on Me-they had their minds fixed on Me, (and hence) they were endowed with the power of Visnu; and they jatah, were born; manasa; from My mind-they were created by Me through My mind itself.

7. One who knows truly this majesty and yoga of Mine, he becomes imbued with unwavering Yoga. There is no doubt about this.

Yah, one who; vetti, knows; tattvatah, truly, i.e. just as it is; etam, this, aforesaid; vibhutim. majesty, (divine) manifestations; [Omnipresence.] and yogam, yoga, action, My own ability to achieve [God's omnipotence. (God's power of accomplishing the impossible.-M.S.)]-or, the capacity for mystic powers, the omniscience resulting from yoga (meditation), is called yoga; sah, he; yujyate, becomes imbued with; avikampena, unwavering; yogena, Yoga, consisting in steadfastness in perfect knowledge. [After realizing the personal God, he attains the transcendental Reality; the earlier knowledge leads to the latter.]

There is no samsayah, doubt; atra, about this.

With what kind of unwavering Yoga does he become endued? This is being answered:

8. I am the origin of all; everything moves on owing to Me. Realizing thus, the wise ones, filled with fervour, adore Me.

Aham, I, the supreme Brahman called Vasudeva; am the prabhavah, origin; sarvasya, of all, of the whole world; sarvam, everything, the whole world of changes, consisting of continuance, destruction, action and enjoyment of the fruits of action; pravartate, moves on; mattah, owing to Me alone. Matva, realizing; iti, thus; the budhah, wise ones, the knowers of the supreme Reality; bhava-samanvitah, filled with fervour-bhava is the same as bhavana, meaning ardent longing for the supreme Reality; filled (samanvitah) with that, i.e. imbued with that; bhajante, adore; mam, Me.

Besides,

9. With minds fixed on Me, with lives dedicated to Me, enlightening each other, and always speaking of Me, they derive satisfaction and rejoice.

Maccittah, with minds fixed on Me; mad-gata-pranah, with lives (pranas) dedicated to Me, or having their organs, eyes etc. absorbed in Me, i.e. having their organs withdrawn into Me; bodhayantah, enlightening; parasparam, each other; and nityam, always; kathayantah, speaking of; mam, Me, as possessed of qualities like knowledge, strength, valour, etc; tusyanti, they derive satisfaction; and ramanti, rejoice, get happiness, as by coming in contact with a dear one.

10. To them who are ever devoted and worship Me with love, I grant that possession of wisdom by which they reach Me.

Tesam, to them, who, becoming devotees, adore Me in the manner described earlier; satata-yuktanam, who are ever devoted, ever attached, who have become free from all external desires; and bhajatam, who worship-. Is it because of hankering for possessions? The Lord says: No, (they worship) priti-purvakam, with love. To them who worship Me with that (love), dadami, I grant; tam, that; buddhi-yogam, possession of wisdom-buddhi means full enlightenment with regard to My real nature; coming in possession (yoga) of that is buddhi-yoga; yena, by which possession of wisdom consisting in full enlightenment; upayanti, they reach, realize as their own Self; mam, Me, the supreme God who is the Self. Who do so? Te, they, who adore Me through such disciplines as fixing their minds on Me, etc.

'For what purpose, or as the destroyer of what cause standing as an obstacle on the way of reaching You, do You bestow that possession of wisdom to those devotees of Yours?'

In reply to such a query the Lord says:

11. Out of compassion for them alone, I, residing in their hearts, destroy the darkness born of ignorance with the luminous lamp of Knowledge.

Anukampartham, out of compassion; tesam eva, for them alone, anxious as to how they may have bliss; aham, I; atmabhavasthah, residing in their hearts-atmabhavah means the seat that is the heart; being seated there itself; nasayami, destroy; tamah, the darkness; ajnanajam, born of ignorance, originating from non-discrimination, the darkness of delusion known as false comprehension; jnana-dipena, with the lamp of Knowledge, in the form of discriminating comprehension; i.e. bhasvata, with the luminous lamp of Knowledge-fed by the oil of divine grace resulting from devotion, fanned by the wind of intensity of meditation on Me, having the wick of the intellect imbued with the impressions arising from such disciplines as celibacy etc., in the receptacle of the detached mind, placed in the windless shelter of the mind withdrawn from objects and untainted by likes and dislikes, and made luminous by full Illumination resulting from the practice of constant concentration and meditation.

After hearing the above-described majesty and yoga of the Lord,

Arjuna said:

12-13. You are the supreme Brahman, the supreme Light, the supreme Sanctifier. All the sages as also the divine sage Narada, Asita, Devala and Vyasa [Although Narada and the other sages are already mentioned by the words 'all the sages', still they are named separately because of their eminence. Asita is the father of Devala.] call You the eternal divine Person, the Primal God, the Birthless, the Omnipresent; and You Yourself verily tell me (so).

Bhavan, You; are the param brahma, supreme Brahman, the supreme Self; the param dhama, supreme Light; the paramam pavitram, supreme Sanctifier. Sarve, all; rsayah, the sages-Vasistha and others; tatha, as also; the devarisih, divine sage; naradah, Narada; Asita and Devala ahuh, call; tvam, You; thus: Sasvatam, the eternal; divyam, divine; purusam, Person; adi-devam, the Primal God, the God who preceded all the gods; ajam, the birthless; vibhum, the Omnipresent-capable of assuming diverse forms. And even Vyasa also speaks in this very way. Ca, and; svayam, You Yourself; eva, verily; bravisi, tell; me, me (so).

14. O Kesava, I accept to be true all this which You tell me. Certainly, O Lord, neither the gods nor the demons comprehend Your glory.

O Kesava, manye, I accept; to be rtam, true indeed; sarvam, all; etat, this that has been said by sages and You; yat, which; vadasi, You tell, speak; mam, to Me. Hi, certainly; bhagavan, O Lord; na devah, neither the gods; na danavah, nor the demons; viduh, comprehend; te, Your; vyaktim, glory [Prabhavam in the Commentary is the same as prabhavam, glory, the unqualified State.].

Since You are the origin of the gods and others, therefore,


15. O supreme Person, the Creator of beings, the Lord of beings, God of gods, the Lord of the worlds, You Yourself alone know Yourself by Yourself.

Purusottama, O supreme Person; bhuta-bhavana, O Creator of beings, one who brings the creatures into being; bhutesa, the Lord of beings; deva-deva, O God of gods; jagat-pate, the Lord of the worlds; tvam, You; svayam, Yourself; eva, alone; vettha, know; atmanam, Yourself, as God possessed of unsurpassable powers of knowledge, sovereignty, strength, etc.; atmana, by Yourself.

16. Be pleased to speak in full of Your own manifestations which are indeed divine, through which manifestations You exist pervading these worlds.

Arhasi, be pleased; vaktum, to speak; asesena, in full; atmavibhutayah, of Your own manifestations; divyah hi, which are indeed divine; yabhih, through which; vibhutibhih, manifestations, manifestations of Your glory; tisthasi, You exist; vyapya, pervading; iman, these; lokan, worlds.

17. O Yogi, [Here yoga stands for the results of yoga, viz omniscience, omnipotence, etc.; one possessed of these is a yogi. (See Comm. on 10.7)] how shall I know You by remaining ever-engaged in meditation? And through what objects, O Lord, are You to be meditated on by me?

O Yogi, katham, how; aham vidyam, shall I know tvam, You; sada pari-cintayan, by remaining ever-engaged in meditation? Ca, and; kesu kesu bhavesu, through what objects; bhagvan, O Lord; cintah asi, are You to be meditated on; maya, by me?

18. O Janardana, narrate to me again [In addition to what has been said in the seventh and ninth chapters.] Your onw yoga and (divine) manifestations elaborately. For, while hearing (Your) nectar-like (words), there is no satiety in me.

O Janardana: ardana is derived from ard, in the sense of the act of going; by virtue of making the janas, the demons who are opposed to the gods, go to hell etc. He is called Jana-ardana. Or, He is called so because He is prayed to [The verbal root ard has got a second meaning, 'to pray'.] by all beings for the sake of human goals, viz prosperity and Liberation.

Kathaya, narrate to me; bhuyah, again, though spoken of earlier; atmanah, Your own; yogam, yoga-the special ability in the form of mystic powers; and vibhutaim, the (divine) manifestations-the variety of the objects of meditation; vistarena, elaborately. Hi, for; srnvatah, while hearing; (Your) amrtam, nectar-like speech issuing out of Your mouth; na asti, there is no; trptih, satiety; me, in me.

The Blessed Lord said:

19. O best of the Kurus, now, according to their importance, I shall described to you My onw glories, which are indeed divine. There is no end to my manifestations.

Kuru-srestha, O best of the Kurus; hanta, now; since, on the other hand, it is not possible to speak exhaustively of them even in a hundred years, (there-fore) pradhanyatah, according to their importance, according as those manifestations are pre-eminent in their respective spheres; kathayisyami, I shall described; te, to you; atma-vibhutayah, My own glories; which are (hi, indeed) divyah, divine, heavenly. Na asti there is no; antah, end; me, to My; vistarasya, manifestations.

'Of those, now listen to the foremost:'

20. O Gudakesa, I am the Self residing in the hearts of all beings, and I am the beginning and the middle as also the end of (all) beings.

Gudakesa, O Gudakesa-gudaka means sleep, and isa means master; master of that (sleep) is gudakesa, i.e. one who has conquered sleep; [See also under 1.24.-Tr.] or, one who has got thick hair; aham, I; am the atma, Self, the indwelling Self; who is to be ever-meditated on as sarva-bhuta-asaya [Asaya-that in which are contained the impressions of meditations (upasanas), actions and past experiences.]-sthitah, residing in the hearts of all beings. And, by one who is unable to do so, I am to be meditated on through the following aspects. I am capable of being meditated on (through them) becasue aham, I; am verily the adih, beginning, the origin; and the madhyam, middle, continuance; ca, as also; the antah, end, dissolution; bhutanam, of (all) beings.

'I am to be meditated upon thus also:'

21. Among the Adityas [viz Dhata, Mitra, aryama, Rudra, Varuna, Surya, Bhaga, Vivasvan, Pusa, Savita, Tvasta and Visnu.-Tr.] I am Visnu; among the luminaries, the radiant sun; among the (forty-nine) Maruts [The seven groups of Maruts are Avaha, Pravaha, Vivaha, Paravaha, Udvaha, Samvaha and parivaha.-Tr.] I am Marici; among the stars I am the moon.

Adityanam, among the twelve Adityas; aham, I; am the Aditya called Visnu. Jyotisam, among the luminaries; amsuman, the radiant; ravih, sun. Marutam, among the different gods called Maruts; asmi, I am; the one called Marici. Naksatranam, among the stars; I am sasi, the moon.

22. Among the Vedas I am Sama-veda; among the gods I am Indra. Among the organs I am the mind, and I am the intelligence in creatures.

Vedanam, among the Vedas; I am the Sama-veda. Devanam, among the gods-such as Rudras, Adityas and others; I am vasavah, Indra. Indriyanam, among the eleven organs, viz eye etc.; I am the manah, mind. I am the mind which is of the nature of reflection and doubt. And I am the cetana, intelligence [It is the medium for the manifestation of Consciousness.], the function of the intellect ever manifest in the aggregate of body and organs; bhtanam, in creatures.

23. Among the Rudras [Aja, Ekapada, Ahirbudhnya, Pinaki, Aparajita, Tryam-baka, Mahesvara, Vrsakapi, Sambhu, Harana and Isvara. Different Puranas give different lists of eleven names.-Tr,] I am Sankara, and among the Yaksas and goblins I am Kubera [God of wealth. Yaksas are a class of demigods who attend on him and guard his wealth.]. Among the Vasus [According to the V.P. they are: Apa, dhruva, Soma, Dharma, Anila, Anala (Fire), Pratyusa and Prabhasa. The Mbh. and the Bh. given a different list.-Tr.] I am Fire, and among the mountains I am Meru.

Rudranam, among the eleven Rudras, I am Sankara; and yaksaraksasam, among the Yaksas and goblins; I am vittesah, Kubera. Vasunam, among the eight Vasus; I am pavakah, Fire; and sikharinam, among the peaked mountains, I am Meru.

24. O son of Prtha, know me to be Brhaspati, the foremost among the priests of kings. Among comanders of armies I am Skanda; among large expanses of water I am the sea.

O son of Prtha viddhi, know; mam, Me; to be Brahaspati, mukhyam, the foremost; purodhasam, among the priests of kings. Being as he is the priest of Indra, he should be the foremost. Senaninam, among commaners of armies; I am Skanda, the commander of the armies of gods. Sarasam, among large expanses of water, among reservoirs dug by gods (i.e. among nature reservoirs); I am sagarah, the sea.

25. Among the great sages I am Bhrgu; of words I am the single syllable (Om) [Om is the best because it is the name as well as the symbol of Brahman.]. Among rituals I am the ritual of Japa [Japa, muttering prayers-repeating passages from the Vedas, silently repeating names of deities, etc. Rituals often involve killing of animals. But Japa is free from such injury, and hence the best.] of the immovables, the Himalaya.

Maharsinam, among the great sages, I am Bhrgu, Giram, of words, of utterances, in the form of words; I am the ekam, single; aksaram, syllable Om. Yajnanam, among rituals; I am the japa-yajnah, rituals of Japa. Sthavaranam, of the immovables, I am the Himalaya.

26. Among all trees (I am) the Asvatha (peepul), and Narada among the divine sages. Among the dandharvas [A class of demigods regarded as the musicians of gods.] (I am) Citraratha; among the perfected ones, the sage Kapila.

Sarva-vrksanam, among all trees, (I am) the Asvatta; and Narada devarsinam, among the divine sages-those who were gods and became sages by virtue of visualizing Vedic mantras; among them I am Narada. Gandharvanam, among the gandharvas, I am the gandharva called Citraratha. Siddhanam, among the perfected ones, among those who, from their very birth, were endowed with an abundance of the wealth of virtue, knowledge and renunciation; (I am) munih, the sage Kapila.

27. Among horses, know Me to be Uccaihsravas, born of nectar; Airavata among the lordly elephants; and among men, the Kind of men. [Uccaihsravas and Airavata are respectively the divine horse and elephant of Indra.]

Asvanam, among horses; viddhi, know; mam, Me; to be the horse named Uccaihsravas; amrta-udbhavam, born of nectar-born when (the sea was) churned (by the gods) for nectar. Airavata, the son of Iravati, gajendranam, among the Lordly elephants; 'know Me to be so' remains understood. And naranam, among men; know Me as the naradhipam, King of men.

28. Among weapons I am the thunderbolt; among cows I am kamadhenu. I am Kandarpa, the Progenitor, and among serpents I am Vasuki.

Ayudhanam, among weapons; I am the vajram, thunderbolt, made of the bones of (the sage) Dadhici. Dhenunam, among milch cows; I am kama-dhuk, Kamadhenu, which was the yielder of all desires of (the sage) Vasistha; or it means a cow in general which gives milk at all times. I am Kandarpa, prajanah, the Progenitor, (the god) Kama (Cupid). Sarpanam, among serpents, among the various serpents, I am Vasuki, the kind of serpents.

29. Among snakes I am Ananta, and Varuna among gods of the waters. Among the manes I am Aryama, and among the maintainers of law and order I am Yama (King of death).

Naganam, among snakes, of a particular species of snakes; asmi, I am Ananta, the King of snakes. And Varuna, the King yadasam, of the gods of the waters. Pitrnam, among the manes; I am the King of the manes, named Aryama. And samyamatam, among the maintainers of law and order I am Yama.

30. Among demons I am Prahlada, and I am Time among reckoners of time. And among animals I am the loin, and among birds I am Garuda.

Daityanam, among demons, the descendants of Diti, I am the one called Prahlada. And I am kalah, Time; kalayatam, among reckoners of time, of those who calculate. And mrganam, among animals; I am mrgendrah, the loin, or the tiger. And paksinam, among birds; (I am) vainateyah, Garuda, the son of Vinata.

31. Of the purifiers I am air; among the wielders of weapons I am Rama. Among fishes, too, I am the shark; I am Ganga among rivers.

Pavatam, of the purifiers; I am pavanah, air. Sastra-bhrtam, among weilders of weapons, I am Rama, son of Dasaratha. Jhasanam, among fishes etc; I am the particular species of fish called makarah shark. I am jahnavi, Ganga; srotasam, among rivers, among streams of water.

32. O Arjuna, of creations I am the beginning and the end as also the middle, I am the knowledge of the Self among knowledge; of those who debate I am vada.

O Arjuna sarganam, of creations; I am the adih, beginning; ca, and ; he antah, end; ca eva, as also; the madhyam, middle-I am the origin, continuance and dissolution. At the commencement (verse 20) origin, end, etc. only of things possessed of souls were spoken of, but here the mention is of all creations in general. This is the difference. Vidyanam, among knowledges; I am the adhyatma-vidya, knowledge of the Self, it being the foremost because of its leading to liberation. Pravadatam, of those who debate; aham, I; am vadah, Vada, which is preeminent since it is a means to determining true purport. Hence I am that . By the word pravadatam are here meant the different kinds of debate held by debators, viz Vada, Jalpa, and Vitanda. [Vada: discussion with open-mindedness, with a veiw to determining true purport; jalpa: pointless debate; Vitanda: wrangling discussion. [Jalpa is that mode of debate by which both parties establish their own viewpoint through direct and indirect proofs, and refute the view of the opponent through circumvention (Chala) and false generalization (Jati) and by pointing out unfitness (of the opponent) tobe argued with (Nigraha-sthana). But where one party establishes his viewpoint, and the other refutes it through circumvention, false generalization and showing the unfitness of the opponent to be argued with, without establishing his own views, that is termed Vitanda. Jalpa and Vitanda result only in a trial of streangth between the opponents, who are both desirous of victory, But the result of Vada is the ascertainment of truth between the teacher and the disciple or between others, both unbiased.-Gloss of Sridhara Swami on this verse.]-Tr.]

33. Of the letters I am the letter a, and of the group of compund words I am (the compound called) Dvandva. [Dvandva: A compound of two or more words which, if not compounded, would stand in the same case and be connected by the conjunction 'and'.-Tr.] I Mayself am the infinite time; I am the Dispenser with faces everywhere.

Aksaranam, of the letters; I am the akarah, letter a. Samasikasya, of the group of compound words, I am the compund (called) Dvandva. Besieds, aham eva, I Myself; am the aksayah, infinite, endless; kalah, time, well known as 'moment' etc.; or, I am the supreme God who is Kala (Time, the measurer) even of time. I am the dhata, Dispenser, the dispenser of the fruits of actions of the whole world; visvatomukhah, with faces everwhere.

34. And I am Death, the destroyer of all; and the prosperity of those destined to be prosperous. Of the feminine [Narinam may mean 'of the feminine qualities'. According to Sridhara Swami and S., the words fame etc. signify the goddesses of the respective qualities. According to M.S. these seven goddesses are the wives of the god Dharma.-Tr.] (I am) fame, beauty, speech, memory, intelligence, fortitude and forbearance.

Death which is of two kinds-one destroying wealth, and the other destroying life-, [Here Ast. adds: tatra yah prana-harah sah (sarva-harah ucyate)-Among them, that which destroys life (is called sarva-harah).-Tr.] is called sarva-harah, the destroyer of all. I am that. This is the meaning. Or, the supreme God is the all-destroyer because He destroys everything during dissolution. I am He. And I am udbhavah, prosperity, eminence, and the means to it. Of whom? Bhavisyatam, of those destined to be prosperous, i.e. of those who are fit for attaining eminence.

Narinam, of the feminine qualities; I am kirtih, fame; srih, beauty; vak, speech; smrtih, memory; medha, intelligence dhrtih, fortitude; and ksama, forbearance. I am these excellent feminine quialities, by coming to possess even a trace of which one considers himself successful.

35. I am also the Brhat-sama of the Sama (-mantras); of the metres, Gayatri. Of the months I am Marga-sirsa, and of the seasons, spring.

I am tatha, also; the Brhat-sama, the foremost samnam, of the Sama-mantras. Chandasam, of the metres, of the Rk-mantras having the metres Gayatri etc.; I am the Rk called Gayatri. This is meaning. Masanam, of the months, I am Marga-sirsa (Agrahayana, November-December). Rtunam, of the seasons; kusumakarah, spring.

36. Of the fraudulent I am the gambling; I am the irresistible command of the mighty. I am excellene, I am effort, I am the sattva quality of those possessed of sattva.

Chalayatam, of the fraudulent, of the deceitful; I am the dyutam, gambling, such as playing with dice. I am the tejah, irresistible command; tejasvinam, of the mighty. [Some translate this as 'the splendour of the splendid'.-Tr.] I am the jayah, excellence of the excellent. [Some translate this as 'the victory of the victorious'.-Tr.] I am the vyavasayah, effort of the persevering. I am the sattvam, sattva quality; [The result of sattva, viz virtue, knowledge, detachment, etc.] sattvavatam, of those possessed of sattva.

37. Of the vrsnis [The clan to which Sri krsna belonged, known otherwise as the Yadavas.] I am Vasudeva; of the Pandavas, Dhananjaya (Arjuna). And of the wise, I am Vyasa; of the omniscient, the omniscient Usanas.

Vrsninam, of the Vrsnis, [Here Ast. adds yadavanam, of the Yadavas.-Tr.] I am Vasudeva- I who am this person, your friend. Pandavanam, of the Pandavas, (I am) Dhananjaya, you yourself. Api, and; muninam, of the wise, of the thoughtful, of those who know of all things, I am Vyasa. kavinam, of the omniscient (i.e. of the those who know the past, present and future), I am the omniscient Usanas (Sukracarya).

38. Of the punishers I am the rod; I am the righteous policy of those who desire to conquer. And of things secret, I am verily silence; I am knowledge of the men of knowledge..

Damayatam, of the punishers; I am dandah, the rod, which is the means of controlling the lawless. I am the nitih, righteous policy; jagisatam, of those who desire to conquer. And guhyanam, of things secret; I am verily maunam, silence. I am jnanam, knowledge; jnanavatam, of the men of knowledge.

39. Moreover, O Arjuna, whatsoever is the seed of all beings, that I am. There is no thing moving or non-moving which can exist without Me.

Ca, moreover; O Arjuna, yat api, whatsoever; is the bijam, seed, the source of

growth ; sarva-bhutanam, of all beings; tat, that I am. As a conclusion of the topic the Lord states in brief His divine manifestations: Na tat asti bhutam, there is no thing; cara-acaram, moving or non-moving; yat, which; syat, can exist; vina maya, without Me. For whatever is rejected by Me, from whatever I withdraw Myself will have no substance, and will become a non-entity. Hence the meaning is that everything has Me as its essence.

40. O destroyer of enemies, there is no limit to My divine manifestations. This description of (My) manifestations, however, has been stated by Me by way illustration.

Parantapa, O destroyer of enemies; asti, there is; na, no; antah, limit; to mama, My; divyanam, divine; vibhutinam, manifestations. Indeed, it is not possible for anyone to speak or know of the limit of the divine manifestations of the of the all-pervading God. Esah, this; vistarah, description; vibhuteh, of (My) manifestations; tu, however; prokatah, has been stated; maya, by Me; uddesatah, by way of illustration, partially.

41. Whatever object [All living beings] is verily endowed with majesty, possessed of prosperity, or is energetic, you know for certain each of them as having a part of My power as its source.

Yat yat, whatever; sattvam, object in the world; is eva, verily; vibhutimat, endowed with majesty; srimad, possessed of prosperity; va, or; is urjitam, energetic, possessed of vigour; tvam, you; avagaccha, know; eva, for certain; tat tat, each of them; as mama tejomsa-sambhavam, having a part (amsa) of My (mama), of God's, power (teja) as its source (sambhavam).

42. Or, on the other hand, what is the need of your knowing this extensively, O Arjuna? I remain sustaning this whole creation in a special way with a part (of Myself).

Athava, or, on the other hand; kim, what is the need; of tava jnatena, your knowing; etena bahuna, this extensively-but imcompletely-in the above manner, O Arjuna? You listen to this subject that is going to be stated in its fullness: Aham, I; sthitah, remain; vistabhya, sustaining, supporting, holding firmly, in a special way; idam, this; krtsnam, whole; jagat, creation; ekamsena, by a part, by a foot [The Universe is called a foot of His by virtue of His having the limiting adjunct of being its efficient and material cause.] (of Myself), i.e. as the Self of all things [As the material and the efficient cause of all things]. The Vedic text, 'All beings form a foot of His' (Rg., Pu. Su. 10.90.3; Tai. Ar. 3.12.3) support this. [A Form constituted by the whole of creation has been presented in this chapter for meditation. Thereby the unqualified transcendental Reality, implied by the word tat (in tattva-masi) and referred to by the latter portion of the Commentator's quotation (viz tripadasyamrtam divi: The immortal three-footed One is established in His own effulgence), becomes established.]